Gum disease is an infection of the gum line that can spread to the bone that supports and protects your teeth. Periodontal disease, often known as gum disease, starts with bacterial development in the mouth. The localised gingival inflammation is brought on by bacteria in the dental plaque, a microbial biofilm that develops on the teeth and gingiva. Most people have gum disease at some point in their lives. Gum disease can be avoided by careful and routine cleaning of the teeth, gums, and dentures. Early intervention can help save teeth threatened by problems like gum disease and other illnesses; consult an oral health expert if you have swollen, bleeding, or loose teeth.


Plaque accumulation on teeth as well as around the gum line is a common contributor to gum disease. Plaque is a bacterial-filled sticky layer. An inflammatory response occurs as a result of the immune system’s attempts to remove plaque.This manifests as swelling and redness of the gums surrounding the tooth. Each individual’s mouth contains a variety of microorganisms. When some of these bacteria feed on the carbohydrates in the food and drinks you ingest, plaque is constantly generated. The ideal environment for the germs that can lead to tooth decay and gum disease is provided by plaque.


Symptoms of periodontal disease include:

  • Gums that are reddish or purple
  • Bleeding
  • Soreness
  • Halitosis or bad breath
  • A taste that is unpleasant.
  • Difficulty chewing
  • Gum recession (the gums sliding away from the teeth)
  • Tooth decay
  • A shift to the way your teeth fit together


A healthy set of gums feels firm to the touch. They don’t bleed or swell either. However, periodontal disease may be indicated by bleeding, swollen, and stained (reddish or purplish) gums. If gum disease is not addressed, it might kill your jawbone and even cause tooth loss. Your teeth’s supporting tissues ultimately degrade.

In fact, most patients with gum disease don’t feel pain, especially in the early stages. Therefore, it’s crucial to understand the warning signals.

The following describes the stages of gum disease:

  • Gingivitis
  • Periodontitis
  • Advanced periodontitis


This is the early stage of gum disease, which is brought on by the accumulation of plaque on the gums. Despite brushing and flossing, if the plaque is still present, it can irritate the mouth. You’ll notice that your gums are bleeding during this stage as you brush and floss. The likelihood of healing is relatively high because the bone is not compromised at this time. Gingivitis is totally reversible with proper treatment.


Periodontitis, the subsequent stage of gum disease, is marked by irreparable damage brought on by germs to the tissues and bones that support your teeth. A pocket develops below the gum line as a result of the separation of your gums, which usually firmly attach to your teeth. This pocket collects food particles and plaque, allowing germs to infect the tissue just below your gum line. Your teeth’s supporting bone and connective tissue eventually become infected by the germs. Future harm can be avoided with appropriate dental care combined with better at-home oral care.

Advanced Periodontitisg

The most serious and advanced stage of gum disease is advanced periodontitis. As the disease progresses during this stage, the fibres and bone are destroyed, allowing your teeth to move or become loose. Advanced periodontitis may even make it difficult for you to get additional dental procedures done, such as receiving a dental crown to repair a tooth. Fortunately, your dentist can provide expert care to help. To clean the gums and get rid of tartar from the spaces between your gums and teeth, your dentist can do thorough cleaning, sometimes referred to as gum treatment. Deep cleaning can halt gum disease in early stages and prevent it from further harming your bone and supportive tissue.


Professional Cleanings – When effective plaque control is practised, gingivitis can be cured and gum disease can be prevented from developing worse in virtually all cases. Professional cleanings performed at least twice annually, along with daily brushing and flossing, are required to effectively reduce plaque.

Flossing – By flossing daily, you can get rid of the food particles and plaque that become stuck between your teeth and below the gum line. Daily flossing removes plaque from places that your toothbrush can’t. Interdental brushes, picks, or tiny brushes that fit in between teeth are some options you can try.

Mouthwash –Antibacterial mouthwash not only prevents gingivitis but also battles plaque and foul breath. Antibacterial rinses are capable of reducing plaque- and gum-causing microorganisms.

Gum disease can be prevented, treated more effectively, and developed more slowly by making other lifestyle and health improvements.

Stop Smoking – Smoking can damage your teeth and gums in addition to being unhealthy for your heart and lungs.

Balanced Diet – To maintain healthy teeth and gums, stay away from foods high in sugar, starch, and junk food. Good nutrition aids in the immune system’s defence against infection. Antioxidant-rich foods can aid in your body’s ability to repair tissue damage.

Avoid Clenching And Grinding – These movements might exert too much force on the tissues that support teeth, increasing the pace at which those tissues degrade.


The accumulation of germs in and around the gums causes gum infections. Gum infections can be avoided with the aid of measures like effective dental hygiene and quitting smoking. Regular checkups at one of the best dental clinics in Kochi are also essential since they can aid in removing tartar and preventing disease.


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